How to develop vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and when it will be available
[img=SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development]https://coronavirusqa.com/!attached/107[/img]
Thanks to @florian_krammer for the infographic
1. GSK and CEPI:
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) from UK announced a new collaboration with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) to develop a vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
GSK is a leader in the development of innovative vaccines using different adjuvant systems. The use of an adjuvant is of particular importance in a pandemic situation since it can reduce the amount of antigen required per dose, allowing more vaccine doses to be produced and made available to more people.
CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil organizations, launched at Davos, Switzerland, in 2017, to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. CEPI has reached over $750 million of its $1 billion funding target.
The UK Government has pledged £20 million to help develop new vaccines against the world's deadliest infectious diseases, including the ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. The funding will be directed to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)
2.The Jenner Institute
Another player on the fields is The Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford, has agreed a contract with Advent Srl, in Italy to produce the first batch of the novel coronavirus vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 for clinical testing.
The vaccines are produced using a safe version of an adenovirus; another virus that can cause a common cold-like illness. The adenovirus has been modified so that it cannot reproduce within the body, and the genetic code to provide instructions for making the coronavirus Spike protein has been added, enabling the adenovirus to produce this protein after vaccination. That results in the formation of antibodies to the Spike protein, which is found on the surface of coronaviruses. In someone who has been vaccinated, antibodies to the Spike can bind to the coronavirus and stop it from causing an infection.
3. iBio and Beijing CC-Pharming Ltd
iBio, a global leader in plant-based biologics manufacturing in Bryan, has partnered with Beijing CC-Pharming Ltd to develop and test a new 2019-nCoV vaccine to combat the coronavirus outbreak.
Using FastPharming technology, iBio has been able to create antibody candidates for Ebola and Dengue fever as well as completely human and animal studies for yellow fever virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza and avian influenza vaccine candidates.
What to aim for? Spike protein
A viral spike protein is like a key that “unlocks the door” to gain access to the cells of a specific host – humans, in this case. To understand how to deal with 2019-nCoV, we first need to understand what this key looks like, and what “keyhole” it targets on human cells.
[img=spike protein vaccine development]https://coronavirusqa.com/!attached/108[/img]
The researchers, led by Jason McLellan of the University of Texas at Austin, defined the structure of SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein using a technique called cryogenic electron microscopy, or “Cryo-EM”. This involves cooling the protein to below -150℃, so that it crystallises and then its structure can be determined with near-atomic resolution.
Scientists sought to gain insights for vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 virus by considering the high genetic similarity between 2019-nCoV and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and leveraging existing immunological studies of SARS-CoV.
By screening the experimentally-determined SARS-CoV-derived B cell and T cell epitopes in the immunogenic structural proteins of SARS-CoV, they identified a set of B cell and T cell epitopes derived from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins that map identically to 2019-nCoV proteins. As no mutation has been observed in these identified epitopes among the available 2019-nCoV sequences, immune targeting of these epitopes may potentially offer protection against SARS-CoV-2 virus.
For the T cell epitopes, they performed a population coverage analysis of the associated MHC alleles and proposed a set of epitopes that is estimated to provide broad coverage globally, as well as in China.
Their findings provide a screened set of epitopes that can help guide experimental efforts towards the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 virus.